Friday, May 7, 2010

Endangered species in India

There are plentiful species in India that are threatened or near threatened. The threat level is based upon population statistics, habitat destruction, poaching or hunting by tribal, disease prevalence and changing land use pattern - expansion of villages around the ecosystem. Weather and climate plays a role as well but most of the species are highly adaptable to withstand such changes until unless drastic.

Some species may be less in nature or survive only in niche ecosystems by natures design. Nevertheless they are always threatened due to limited population or few remaining niches. One example is Hard Ground Barasingha which survives in the grasslands of Kanha National Park. Birds like Siberian Crane have not become extinct but the stock that used to migrate to India in winters has.   

Species facing extinction or near extinction are:

Tiger
Wild Dog
Indian Wolf
Asiatic Lion
Leopard
Asiatic Black Bear
Fishing Cat
Desert Cat
One Horned Indian Rhino
Indian Wild Elephant 
Capped Leaf Monkey
Ganges River Dolphin
Swamp Deer
Hispid Hare
Indus River Dolphin
Hoolock Gibbon
Red Panda
Snow Leopard
Banteng
Brown Bear
Clouded Leopard
Ganges River Dolphin
Himalayan Musk Dear
Asiatic Golden Cat
Nilgiri Tahr
Nilgiri Langur
Lion Tailed Macaque
Golden Langur
Wild Goat
Wild Yak 
Jenkin's Shrew
Mouse Deer
Malabar Large Spotted Civet
India Gazelle
Namdapha Flying Squirrel
Sarus Crane
Black Necked Crane
Pygmy Hog
Black Necked Stork
Salim Ali's Fruit Bat
Green Avadavat
White Rumped Vulture
Sumatran Rhinoceros
Long Billed Vulture
Wroughton's Free Tailed Bat

Fragmented habitats are imposing a serious threat of inbreeding among many species especially the tigers in India. Due rampant destruction of trees and grasslands for fuel wood and fodder is another cause of habitat loss. In case of insects and birds apart from habitat loss, chemicals used by humans are reducing their breeding capacity.    

In case of many species especially birds the status is unknown due to difficulty in gauging the numbers and migratory behavior. Research is crucial to uncover hidden facts behind decreasing number of any species. 

Prevention

The common man can play a crucial role in preventing species extinction and habitat conservation in the country. 
The only solution to prevent extinction is habitat conservation and its expansion. This could be done by allocating abandoned land for habitat regeneration near the ecosystem. Relocation of villages inside wildlife sanctuaries and National Parks in India. 

Conservation of crucial natural resources, encouraging usage renewable energy. Discouraging industry that depend heavily on wood - use less paper and recycle it. Discourage urbanization and industrial development near fragile ecosystems. 

Preventing wildlife crimes like poaching and illegal logging.  Responsible tourism with profit sharing by hospitality industry. Fighting for pro active policies for nature conservation.
Living in an eco friendly manner in order to conserve natural resources. Love all life forms and throw away any myths and fears that encourages the vermin attitude. 

The diversity that exists in wildlife of India is amazing and mind boggling. Indian wildlife is our inheritance, it is crucial for our survival since we are very much dependent on nature. 

Every citizen of India should be concerned about nature and environment. All life forms are interlinked hence their survival is crucial to us all. As our culture speaks we must respect all life forms on Earth. 
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